Study of the earth is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the earth’s crust (commonly in aquifers). Hydrology analysis provides a useful method for describing the physical features of the earth surface.
The tunnel work including removal of loose rock, rock bolting to secure unstable rock blocks, repair of the existing concrete tunnel liner. The resulting rehabilitation will provide a safe environment for the public and maintenance workers as well as extending the life of ventilation, mechanical and electrical fixtures.
Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/ mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.
Ground anchors consisting of cables or rods connected to a bearing plate are often used for the stabilization of steep slopes or slopes consisting of softer soils, as well as the enhancement of embankment or foundation soil capacity, or to prevent excessive erosion and landslides.
Shotcrete is concrete conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique. It is reinforced by conventional steel rods, steel mesh, and/ or fibers.
Grout is a particularly fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps. It is used in construction to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints such as those between tiles.
The purpose of ground support is to safely maintain excavations for their expected lifespan, it involves support and retention of a newly exposed excavation face and reinforcement of the materials surrounding the excavation.
Slope stability is the potential of soil covered slopes to withstand and undergo movement. Stability is determined by the balance of shear stress and shear strength. A previously stable slope may be initially affected by preparatory factors, making the slope conditionally unstable.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation. It is practiced most often in Mining, Quarrying and Civil Engineering such as DAM or Road Construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as rock cut.
Safety Is Priority, Work Is Quality